7. Employes whose duties may require them to give signals, must provide themselves with the proper appliances, keep them in good order and ready for immediate use.
7 (A). Signals must be used strictly
in accordance with the rules. Employes in train, engine or yard service
and others concerned must keep a constant lookout for signals. Employes
giving signals must locate themselves so as to be plainly seen, and
give them so as to be plainly understood.
The utmost care must be exercised by employes to avoid acting upon signals that may be intended for other trains or engines. Unless employes are positive that signals given are for them, they must not move their train or engine until communication is made by words.
When backing or pushing a train or cars, the disappearance
from view of trainmen or light by which signals are given, must be regarded
as a stop signal, except when leading car is
7 (B). Crews of trains clear of main track must not give a proceed signal to an approaching train.
7 (C). Where there are close side clearances, or where conditions require, employes will, if practicable, work on the opposite side.
8. Flags or lights of the prescribed color and type must be used as required by the rules by day, and lights of the prescribed color and type must be used by night.
9. Day signals must be displayed from sunrise to sunset, but when day signals cannot be plainly seen, night signals must be used in addition.
Night signals must be displayed from sunset to sunrise.
10 (g). When a red flag or a red light is found between the rails of the track, or on the engineer’s side of the track, train must stop before passing it and not proceed until proper verbal information is obtained, or written information is found with the red signal, or a proceed signal given with yellow flag or yellow light is received from foreman in charge.
Red signal must be replaced when found between the rails.
10 (h). When a yellow flag or a yellow
light is found on the engineer’s side of the track, or is displayed
by a flagman, train must be prepared to stop at a red signal one and
If a flagman is at the yellow signal, the signal must be acknowledged, Rule 14 (g).
11. A train or engine finding a fusee burning red on or near its track must stop, and may then proceed at restricted speed for one mile.
A train or engine finding a fusee burning red beyond the nearest rail of an adjacent main track need not stop, but must proceed at restricted speed for one mile.
11 (A). Fusees must not be placed where
they might set fire to anything, nor on public crossings.
HAND, FLAG AND LANTERN SIGNALS
(h) Any object waved violently by any person on or near the track must be respected as a signal to stop.
14. The whistle must be sounded where required by rule or law. In case of whistle failure, speed of train must be reduced and the bell rung continuously when approaching and passing through stations, yards, over public crossings and around curves.
The signals prescribed are illustrated by “0" for short sounds; "—" for longer sounds. The sound of the whistle should be distinct, with intensity and duration proportionate to the distance signal is to be conveyed.
The unnecessary use of the whistle is prohibited and it must not be sounded while passing or being passed by a passenger train, except where required by rule or law, or in case of an emergency.
15. The explosion of two torpedoes is a signal to immediately reduce speed to twenty (20) miles per hour or as much slower as conditions require, keeping a close lookout for train or obstruction. After reducing to twenty (20) miles per hour, speed must not be increased until train has reached a point at least one mile from where the torpedoes were exploded.
The explosion of one torpedo will indicate the same as two, but the use of two is required.
Torpedoes must be placed not less than 150 feet apart, and not in immediate vicinity of station buildings, or public crossings, or where they may cause injury.
During extremely cold weather or when torpedoes may be
covered with snow, a duplicate set must be placed on the opposite rail
to explode simultaneously.
16. Each car of a passenger train must be connected with the engine by communicating signal appliance.
If the communicating signal fails, or an engine or car not so equipped is used on a passenger train, arrangements must be made for engineer to receive hand signal before passing stations. On passenger trains so equipped, radio or telephone may be used in place of hand signals.
When practicable, hand signals will be given in addition to 16 (a) and 16 (c).
17. The headlight must be displayed burning bright to the front of every train by day and by night.
It must be extinguished when a train has stopped clear of the main track to meet a train, or is standing to meet a train at the end of double or three or more tracks, or at a junction.
At night, when an engine is backing without cars or is backing pulling cars, a white light must be displayed in the direction of movement.
S-17. When a train is to take siding to meet an opposing train, and the headlight of the train which is to take siding fails before train is clear of main track, or if view of headlight is obscured by cars or other obstructions, a member of the crew must be immediately sent ahead on main track to stop opposing train until main track is clear.
Until the headlight of a train turned out to meet another
train is extinguished, it is an indication that the main track is obstructed.
EXCEPTION: Rule S-17 does not apply in CTC territory.
17 (A). When the headlight fails enroute, a white light must be used in its place, the bell rung continuously while moving, the whistle sounded frequently, and the train dispatcher notified at the first opportunity.
17 (B). Except in foggy or stormy weather,
or when closely approaching or passing over public crossings at grade,
or when other conditions make it inadvisable, headlight must be
In yards where yard engines are employed and at stations where switching is being done;
When closely moving behind or when standing behind another train;
On double or three or more tracks when approaching train in the opposite direction;
In CTC territory, when meeting train and it is not necessary to stop for opposing train;
While standing on main track awaiting arrival of an approaching train that is to take siding, but not until approaching train dims its headlight as a signal for the standing I train to do likewise;
When passing engine or rear of train, to afford identification of moving train;
Approaching stations where train orders or messages are to be handed up by operator;
At other times to permit passing of signals or when the safety of employes or others requires.
17 (C). On engines so equipped, oscillating white headlight must be displayed by night and at any time weather or other conditions impair visibility. It must be extinguished when the headlight is dimmed or extinguished.
Oscillating white light should be used in a stationary position as a substitute headlight in case of failure of the headlight.
17 (D). On engine so equipped, oscillating red headlight must be displayed immediately by day or by night under the following conditions:
When red headlight is displayed, an opposing train on
same or adjacent track must stop before passing headlight, ascertain
the cause and be governed by conditions.
18. Yard engines will display the headlight
to the front and rear by night and at any time the view is obscured
by storm or fog. The headlight on the end that is coupled to cars may
be dimmed or extinguished while so coupled.
19. Unless otherwise provided, the following signals must be displayed in the places provided to the rear of every train, as markers, to indicate the rear of the train:
By day, marker lamps lighted or unlighted, or green flags;
By night, marker lamps lighted, displaying green to the front and side and red to the rear, except when train is clear of main track, green must be displayed to front, side and rear.
One marker displayed will indicate the same as two but the display of two is required.
EXCEPTIONS: That part of this rule requiring markers to display green to rear when clear of main track does not apply in CTC territory.
D-19. By night, when train is turned out against the current of traffic, marker lamps lighted must display green to the front, side and rear on the side next to the main track on which the current of traffic is in the direction the train is moving, and red to the rear on the opposite side.
19 (A). A train not equipped to display the prescribed markers, will display a red flag by day and a red light by night, to indicate the rear of the train, except when clear of main track, a white light instead of a red light will be displayed.
EXCEPTIONS: The red light will not be replaced with a white light in CTC territory.
19 (B). When the rear of a train is equipped with built-in markers or electric signal lights, they must be lighted by day and by night and the requirement that markers display green to front and side will not apply.
19 (C). Unless otherwise provided, train crews arriving at terminals must continue the display of markers until the train has been delivered to connecting crew or is clear of main track and switch is properly lined.
19 (D). On passenger trains so equipped, red rear end light, when not operated automatically must, unless otherwise provided, be displayed in oscillating position from sunset to sunrise and when day signals cannot be seen due to weather or other conditions. It must also be displayed in oscillating position by day when the train is moving under circumstances in which it may be overtaken by another train, or other emergency conditions require. Its use does not in any way relieve members of the crew from compliance with Rules 99 and 102. Red rear end light must be extinguished when train is clear of main track or when train is to be switched from the rear.
19 (E). When markers of a train ahead display red to the rear, or when red rear end light is displayed in oscillating position, a following train on the same or adjacent track must approach prepared to stop short of rear of preceding train. If rear of preceding train is clear of the track being used, the following train must then proceed at restricted speed until it is seen that the entire train ahead is clear of the track being used, except that in CTC territory, the following train will be governed by signal indication.
20. All sections except the last must display two green lights by day and by night on the front of the engine.
S-20. If both green lights fail enroute, train must stop and notify inferior trains that are met or passed and also trains at train order meeting points.
21. Extra trains must display two white lights by day and by night on the front of the engine.
22. When two or more engines are coupled together, each engine must display the required classification signals. The leading engine only will give and answer signals.
EXCEPTION: In CTC or Rule 251 territory, a helper engine moving over only a portion of a subdivision need not display signals.
23. One light displayed, where in Rules 20 and 21 two are prescribed, will indicate the same as two; but the proper display of all train signals is required.
24. Trains may be identified by indicators displayed on the engine when so equipped, which must have the train number or engine number properly displayed. When train number is required, train must not leave its initial station without the train number being properly displayed in the indicators.
When number of train is changed, indicators must be changed to correspond. Before making such change, movement of other trains must be safeguarded.
When an engine is cut out of a train, train number must
be removed promptly from indicators.
COMMON STANDARD INDICATORS
EXCEPTION: In CTC or Rule 251 territory, a helper engine moving over only a part of a subdivision will display its engine number instead of train number in indicators.
When helper engine is not on head end of train, or is moving light to or from helping a train, the engine number only will be displayed in its indicators.
24 (B). When an engine consists of more than one unit and the train number is not used in indicators, the number of one unit only will be illuminated at all times when in service, and will be the identifying number. When practicable the number of the leading unit must be used. The numbers of the other units must not be illuminated.
26. A blue signal, displayed at one or both ends of an engine, car or train, indicates that workmen are under or about it; when thus protected, it must not be coupled to or moved.
Other equipment must not be placed on the same track so as to intercept the view of the blue signals, without first notifying the workmen. Each class of workmen will display the blue signals and the same workmen are alone authorized to remove them.
When emergency repair work is to be done under the engine, or under or about cars in a train, and a blue signal is not available, the engineer must be notified by a member of the crew and protection given those engaged in making the repairs. Train or engine must not be moved, nor air brakes applied or released, until all employes are out from under or from between cars, and the engineer so advised by the same employe.
27. A signal imperfectly displayed, or the absence of a signal at a place where a signal is usually displayed, must be regarded as the most restrictive indication that can be displayed by that signal, except that when a light is not burning on a signal and the day indication is plainly seen, or if an indication is displayed on a color light signal for the route to be used, it will govern.
Employes using a switch where the switch light is imperfectly displayed or absent, must, if practicable, correct or replace the light. A signal imperfectly displayed, or the absence of a signal at a place where a signal is usually displayed, must be promptly reported to the superintendent.
27 (A). Where reflectorized type switch lamps are in use, in case of headlight failure or engine backing without a headlight, trains and engines must approach facing point switches at restricted speed.
28. A White signal must be used to stop a train to receive traffic only at the flag stations indicated on its schedule or in special instructions.
When necessary to stop a train for other purposes or at other stations, a red signal must be used.
29. When a signal, except a fixed signal, is given to stop a train, it must, unless otherwise provided, be acknowledged as prescribed by Rules 14 (g) or (h).
30. Except where the stop and start, forward or backward, is part of a switching movement, the engine bell must be rung when an engine is about to move; while passing through stations, tunnels and snow sheds; while approaching public crossings at grade, beginning sufficiently in advance to afford ample warning, but not less than one-fourth mile before reaching such crossing, and continuing until the engine has passed over the crossing; and where required by special instructions. The unnecessary use of the bell is prohibited.
33. Watchmen stationed at public crossings must use stop signals when necessary to stop trains. They must use prescribed signals t stop highway traffic.
34. All members of the crew in cab of engine must, and other members of train crew, when practicable, will communicate to each other by its name the indication of each signal affecting the movement of their train or engine as soon as it becomes visible or audible. It is the responsibility of the engineer to know that these requirements are complied with in cab of engine.
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