S-71. A train is superior to another train by right, class or direction.
Right is conferred by train order; class and direction by time-table.
Right is superior to class or direction.
Direction is superior as between trains of the same class.
D-71. A train is superior to another train by right or class.
Right is conferred by train order; class by time-table.
Right is superior to class.
72. Trains of the first class are superior to those of the second; trains of the second class are superior to those of the third; and so on.
S-72. Trains in the direction specified in the time-table are superior to trains of the same class in the opposite direction.
73. Extra trains are inferior to regular trains.
81. A main track must not be fouled or occupied without authority, unless protected as prescribed by Rule 99.
81 (A). When a train, either on main track or siding, is to stop to be met or passed by another train, or is to stop for a signal at the end of a siding, stop should be made not less than 300 feet from the signal or fouling point if length of train will permit.
82. Time-table schedules, unless fulfilled or annulled, are in effect for twelve hours after their time at each station.
Regular trains more than twelve hours behind either their schedule arriving or leaving time at any station lose both right and schedule, and can thereafter proceed only as authorized by train order, except in CTC territory, further movement will be authorized by the train dispatcher.
S-83. A train must not leave its initial station on any subdivision, or a junction, or pass from double or three or more tracks to single track, or leave CTC territory until it has been ascertained whether all trains due, which are superior, have arrived or left.
S-83 (A). When a train is required to meet, or wait for, an opposing extra train, or when an extra train has been made superior to an opposing train, the train register must not be used as evidence of the arrival of such extra train, except as provided by Form W train order, Examples (5) or (6).
D-83. A train must not leave its initial station on any subdivision or a junction, or leave CTC or Rule 251 territory, until it has been ascertained whether all trains due, which are superior, have left.
83 (A). Stations at which train registers are located are designated in the time—table.
Unless otherwise provided, conductors of all trains, and engineers of engines without conductors, must register their trains on the train register at points designated in the time—table. Where authorized, register ticket will be accepted by the operator who must register for the conductor and report trains to the train dispatcher from the train register.
Conductors must fill out train register check on the prescribed form and deliver or have it delivered to engineer before leaving register station, unless cieck of trains is received by train order.
The number of a section of a regular train must be spelled out on train registers and register tickets.
83 (B). Unless otherwise provided, a train must not leave its initial station on any subdivision without a clearance, which must include the O.K., the time, and the superintendent’s initials.
Operators must not issue a clearance to a train at its initial station on any subdivision without authority from the train dispatcher, except in case of failure of means of communication. In case of failure of means of communication, the words “wire failure" must be shown on the clearance with the time and operator’s name instead of the O.K., and the superintendent’s initials.
After having been detoured, a train returning to its regular route at other than an initial station for that schedule, must not resume its schedule unless directed by train order to do so.
83 (C). A regular train must not be created at a station other than the initial station of the schedule except as authorized by train order.
84. A train must not start until the proper signal is given.
85. When a train of one schedule is on the time of another schedule of the same class in the same direction, it will proceed on its own schedule.
Trains of one schedule may pass trains of another schedule of the same class, and extra trains may pass or run ahead of second and third class trains and extra trains.
Third class trains may pass or run ahead of second class trains.
A section may pass and run ahead of another section of the same schedule, first exchanging train orders, clearances, signals and numbers with the section to be passed. The change in sections must be reported from the first available point of communication.
86.Unless otherwise provided, an inferior train must be clear at the time a superior train in the same direction is due to leave the next station in the rear where time is shown.
87. Necessary identification of trains must be made at meeting points and at passing points.
S-87. An inferior train must clear the time of opposing superior trains not less than five (5) minutes, except at schedule meeting points between trains of the same class, where the inferior train must clear the main track before the leaving time of the superior train. An inferior train failing to clear the main track by the time required must be protected as prescribed by Rule 99.
87 (A). Where operator’s advancing indicators are in service, when a train is required by rule, train order or instructions to take siding for an opposing or following train at that station, and it is desired to advance them on the main track to train order office to receive train order or instructions permitting them to proceed beyond that station, train dispatcher may instruct operator to display advance indication.
A train approaching a station when advance indication is displayed must acknowledge with two long sounds of engine whistle and may proceed on main track at restricted speed to train order office and be governed by train orders or instructions received.
When proceeding on an advance indication against an opposing train and stop is made before reaching train order office, front of train must be protected immediately as prescribed by Rule 99.
Operator must not display advance indication unless authorized by train order Form X.
S-88. Extra trains will be governed by
train orders with respect to opposing extra trains.
S-89. Unless otherwise provided, the
inferior train must take siding at meeting points.
S-89 (A). At schedule meeting points between trains of the same class, the superior train must stop clear of the switch used by the train taking siding unless switch is properly lined and track is clear.
At train order meeting points, the train holding the main track must stop clear of the switch used by the train taking siding unless the train to be met is clear of the main track and switch is properly lined.
S-90. On trains equipped with communicating signal system, the conductor must give signal 16 (l) to the engineer immediately after passing the last station but not less than one mile preceding a schedule meeting point with a train of the same or superior class or a point where by train order it is to meet, or has to wait for, an opposing train. The engineer will immediately reply with signal 14 (n). If the engineer fails to answer by signal 14 (n), the conductor must take immediate action to stop the train.
On other trains, the engineer will give signal 14 (n) at least one mile before reaching a meeting or waiting point.
91. Unless some form of block signals is used, trains in the same direction must keep not less than ten (10) minutes apart, except in closing up at stations.
91 (A). Unless otherwise provided, where
no form of block signals is in use, operator on duty must space trains
ten (10) minutes apart.
When train order signal is used to space trains it must be placed to indicate stop immediately after rear of train has passed signal. When clearance is used to space trains, operator must show on clearance the time train may go and train must not leave before that time.
92. A train must not leave a station in advance of its schedule leaving time.
93. Within yard limits the main track may be used, clearing first class trains when due to leave the last station where time is shown. In case of failure to clear the main track, protection must be given as prescribed by Rule 99.
Within yard limits the main track may be used without protecting against second and inferior class, extra trains and engines.
Within yard limits second and inferior class, extra trains and engines must move at restricted speed. .
Within yard limits when running against the current of traffic or on a portion of double or three or more tracks used as single track, all trains and engines must move at restricted speed.
93. Within yard limits, all trains and engines must move prepared to stop within the distance track is seen to be clear.
Within yard limits, where the main track is protected by continuous block signals, protection against other trains is not required. Where not protected by continuous block signals, protection in accordance with Rule 99 must be afforded against first-class trains. In block or non-block signal territory during foggy or stormy weather, protection in accordance with Rule 99 must be afforded against all trains and engines.
EXCEPTION: Unless otherwise authorized, a train or engine must not be moved against the current of traffic within yard limits until provision has been made for the protection of such movement.
93 (A). Second-class, extra trains and engines must avoid delay to first—class trains within yard limits.
94. A train which overtakes another train so disabled that it cannot proceed will pass it, if practicable, and if necessary will assume the schedule and take the train orders and clearances of the disabled train, proceed to the first available point of communication, and there report to the train dispatcher. The disabled train will assume the right or schedule and take the train orders and clearances of the last train with which it has exchanged, and will, when able, proceed to and report from the first available point of communication.
95. Two or more sections may be run on the same schedule.
Each section has equal time-table authority.
A train must not display signals for a following section without train order authority, except as prescribed by Rules 85 and 267.
95 (A). When display of signals is to be discontinued at an intermediate train register station of a schedule, the train which is to continue movement beyond will take down the signals at the place where its train register is located; following sections which are to be discontinued at that station must clear main track at the first switch of the siding, except if siding is beyond train register location they must not occupy main track beyond location of the train register unless further movement is authorized by train order, Rule 93 or under protection as prescribed by Rule 99.
When signals are displayed to the terminal of a schedule on a subdivision, all sections have the same time-table authority as the regular train has when no signals are displayed.
S-96. Signals must not be ordered displayed to, nor taken down at, other than a register station for the train displaying the signals.
97. Unless otherwise provided, extra trains must be authorized by train orders.
D-97. Extra trains, except work extras, may be authorized to run with the current of traffic by a clearance which will include clearance number, engine number and direction, thus "C&E Extra 77 West", and the name of the station to which the extra is authorized to run. Such clearance must be authorized by the train dispatcher and may be cancelled by train order, and must not be issued by an operator in case of wire failure.
Work extras must be authorized by train orders and unless otherwise provided, must move with the current of traffic.
98. Trains and engines must approach the end of double or three or more tracks, junctions, railroad crossings at grade, and drawbridges, at restricted speed, unless protected by block or interlocking signals.
Where required by rule or law, trains and engines must stop.
98 (A). At a railroad crossing not protected by signals, trains and engines must stop before passing stop sign. When view is obscured so that at least 200 feet of the other railroad on each side of crossing cannot be seen from point where train or engine is stopped, a member of crew must be sent to crossing to give proceed signal when safe to proceed. The train or engine must not proceed until proceed signal has been received.
Where a railroad crossing at grade is protected by a gate, if the gate is set against the route to be used, trains or engines must stop and remain at least fifty feet from the crossing until the gate is secured in proper position against the other route.
Where signals are operated in conjunction with the gate and do not indicate proceed when gate is set against the other track, a member of the crew must proceed to the crossing, ascertain that gate is properly secured and if no conflicting movement is evident will give proceed signal. Train or engine must not proceed until proceed signal has been received. If a train or engine is approaching on a conflicting route, proceed signal must not be given until conflicting movement has been completed over the crossing or has come to a stop. Proceed signal must not be given until after a thorough understanding has been had with the crew of the train or engine stopped on the conflicting route.
99. When a train is moving under circumstances in which it may be overtaken by another train, the flagman must drop lighted fusees at proper intervals and take such other action as may be necessary to insure full protection.
When a train stops under circumstances in which it may be overtaken by another train, the flagman must go back immediately with f1agman’s signals a sufficient distance to insure full protection, placing two torpedoes, and when necessary, in addition, displaying lighted fusees.
When recalled and safety to the train will permit, he may return and when the conditions require, he will leave the torpedoes and a lighted fusee.
The front of the train must be protected in the same way when necessary by the forward trainman or other competent employe.
When a passenger train stops, the flagman properly clothed and with necessary flagging equipment, must appear on the ground at the rear of the rear car prepared to provide protection as prescribed by the rules.
Conductors and engineers are responsible for the protection of their trains.
When flagman is left behind, or is incapacitated, another trainman must take his place.
Ihe following signals will be used by flagman:
Day signals—A red flag, not less than ten (10) torpedoes and six (6) red fusees.
Night signals--A white light, not less than ten (10) torpedoes and six (6) red fusees.
THE ABOVE RULE 99 DOES NOT APPLY ON THE UNION PACIFIC OREGON DIVISION OR ON THE SPOKANE INTERNATIONAL RAILROAD.
99. When a train stops, except when clear of the main track, the flagman must go back immediately with flagman’s signals, a sufficient distance to insure full protection. One-half mile from the rear of his train he will place two torpedoes on the rail, continuing back one and one-half miles from the rear of his train he will place two torpedoes on the rail. He may then return to the two torpedoes one—half mile from rear of his train where he must remain and flag approaching trains until relieved or recalled by the whistle of his engine.
During foggy or stormy weather and in the vicinity of obscure curves or descending grades, or when other conditions require it, the flagman will increase the distance, placing two torpedoes at every one-fourth mile beyond the second set of torpedoes.
The front of the train must be protected in the same way when necessary.
After the flagman has the necessary torpedoes placed and has returned to the two torpedoes one-half mile from his train, when he is recalled by the engine whistle he may return if safety to his train will permit, removing the two torpedoes from rail at that point. When the conditions require he will leave a lighted fusee, and not remove the two torpedoes at that point.
Should a train be seen or heard approaching before the flagman has reached the required distance, he must at once place two torpedoes on the rail, and if it is by night or during foggy or stormy weather, he must at once place two torpedoes on the rail and leave a lighted fusee at that point and continue in the direction of the approaching train and flag it with a lighted fusee.
If the flagman is recalled before reaching the required distance, he will, if necessary, place two torpedoes on the rail; by night, or during foggy or stormy weather, he must display a lighted fusee in addition, to protect his train while returning.
When a train is moving under circumstances in which it may be overtaken by another train, the flagman must drop lighted fusees at proper intervals and take such other action as may be necessary to insure full protection.
When a passenger train stops and rules or conditions do not require that flagman protect his train in accordance with Rule 99, the flag- man must take position not less than 60 feet from rear of train, prepared to provide protection if it becomes necessary.
Conductors and engineers are responsible for the protection of their trains.
When flagman is left behind, or is incapacitated, another trainman mast take his place.
99 (A). In CTC territory, protection of train in accordance with Rule 99 is not required when standing on main track between Stop signals of a controlled siding.
In CTC territory, when protection of rear of train is required, Rule 99 must be complied with except that flagman need not go back farther than the last Stop signal governing the direction of his train, calling train dispatcher by telephone at that location.
99 (B). When a train requires flag protection, the engineer must immediately whistle out flagman. If that signal has been sounded before the train has been brought to a stop, it must be repeated immediately after stop has been made. When ready to proceed, he will recall the flagman.
99 (C). When a train has been flagged, flagman must inform the engineer why the train has been flagged and engineer must be governed by conditions.
99 (D). When a flagman is sent out with instructions affecting a train’s authority to proceed, three copies of the instructions must be made, one copy to be given to the flagman who must show his copy to the engineer of the train or trains affected, one copy to the engineer of the train he is sent on (if sent on a train), and the other copy to be retained by the conductor. When a flagman is sent on a train, he will ride on the engine and the engineer must stop and let him off at the first switch at the station to which he is sent.
101. Trains and engines must be fully protected against any known condition which interferes with their safe passage at normal speed.
101 (A). If any defect or condition which might cause an accident is discovered in track, bridges or culverts, a flagman must be left. The radio, telegraph or telephone must not be depended on to notify other trains or engines.
If any member of a train or engine crew has reason to believe that their train or engine has passed over any dangerous defect, stop must be made at once and proper protection provided. A prompt report must be made to the proper authority.
101 (B). During severe storms or when there is indication of high water or any condition which threatens damage, trains must move at restricted speed. If in doubt as to being able to proceed safely, train must be placed on siding. Conductors and engineers must make inquiries at stopping places and, when advisable, extra stops must be made to ascertain extent and severity of storms and to examine bridges, culverts, or other places subject to damage by high water.
If any condition is found that might affect the safety of a train, flag protection must be provided and section forces and train dispatcher promptly notified.
When a train is flagged by a track patrolman in case of storm or high water, patrolman must, if necessary, patrol track ahead of train through the storm area.
101 (C). Trains must run carefully in locations affected by drifting sand or slides and under conditions of dense fog or stormy weather when visibility is restricted.
102. When a train is disabled or stopped suddenly by an emergency application of the air brakes or other causes, a lighted red fusee must be immediately displayed on adjacent tracks at front and rear of train and adjacent tracks as well as tracks of other railroads that are liable to be obstructed must at once be protected in both directions as prescribed by Rule 99, until it is ascertained they are safe and clear for the movement of trains.
In such cases it must be determined by inspection that the train involved and the track to be used are safe for the train to proceed. Train involved must not proceed, nor flagmen recalled, until engineer has been definitely advised by conductor that it is safe to do so.
In A train on an adjacent track must not pass the disabled train unless it is preceded by a flagman or unless definitely assured by the conductor of the disabled train that the track is clear and it is safe to proceed.
102 (A). When there has been a derailment, after equipment has been rerailed it must be known by inspection of track and equipment that it is safe for the train to proceed.
102 (B). When an engine leaves its train or part of its train behind and passes any switch where it would be possible for another train or engine to enter that track between the front and rear portions, the engine must not return to the rear portion unless a flagman is protecting the return movement, or unless the return movement has been authorized by the train dispatcher.
When an engine leaves its train or part of its train behind on the main track, a sufficient number of hand brakes must be set to keep train from moving, torpedoes must be placed a sufficient distance in advance of the detached portion to warn the returning movement. Such movement must be made at restricted speed. In addition, at night or when view is obscured by weather conditions, a light must be placed on the front end of the detached portion of the train. When a light is not available, or when other conditions require, a trainman must protect the returning movement.
103. When cars are pushed by an engine and the conditions require, a trainman must take a conspicuous position on the leading car.
When switching over public crossings at grade or authorized foot crossings not protected by a watchman, by gates, or by crossing signals in operation, a member of the crew must protect the crossing. When protecting crossings a man must be on the ground at the crossing. The man protecting the crossing must not get on the leading car or engine until front of movement has passed over the crossing. Protection must also be provided under the following conditions:
While coupling cars at or near crossings;
While pushing cars over crossings, except when the leading car is equipped with a back-up air brake hose or pipe and whistle in charge of a trainman.
In general, highway crossing signals are so designed that they will not operate for a train or engine making a reverse movement after having passed over the crossing. Before such reverse movement is made, a member of the crew must take position at the crossing to afford protection to traffic while movement is being made, unless it is known that signals are operating.
When a train is parted to clear a public crossing not protected by a watchman, or is standing near such crossing, a trainman must, when practicable, protect traffic against trains or engines approaching on adjacent tracks.
Unnecessary operation of automatic highway crossing signals due to trains or cars standing in circuit must be avoided.
Where automatic crossing signals are equipped for manual operation, signals may be manually operated for highway traffic. If signals have been manually operated they must be restored to automatic operation.
103 (A). Unless otherwise provided, cars must not be handled ahead of engine between stations, except in emergency or when necessary to take cars to or from a spur track or in work train service.
Air brakes on such cars must be cut in and operative, and the movement must be for no greater distance than necessary.
104. Conductors are responsible for the position of switches used by them and their trainmen, except where an employe is assigned to handle switches.
Switches must be left in proper position after having been used and must not be left open for another train or engine unless in charge of a member of the crew of such train or engine or an employe assigned to handle switches.
When practicable, engineer must see that the switches and derails near the engine are properly lined.
A train or engine must not foul a main track until switches connected with the movement are properly lined. When waiting to cross from one track to another and during the approach or passage of a train or engine on tracks involved, all switches connected with the movement must be secured in the normal position. Switches must not be restored to normal position until the movement is completed or clear of the main track involved.
Trains or engines leaving a main track must pull clear
of the main track before stopping for trainman to line the switch.
104 (A). Unless otherwise provided, the normal position of a main track switch is for the main track and must be lined and locked in that position, except when changed for immediate movement.
For facing point movements, switches equipped with locks must be locked, or if equipped with hooks only must be hooked, for trains moving through them; for trailing point movements and for other than train movements switches will be secured by placing locks or hooks in hasp. Switches equipped with other types of locks or security devices which do not permit of this must be secured to the extent practicable.
A main track switch must not be left open unless a member of the crew remains near enough to be able to line it upon the approach of a train or engine.
Employes handling switches must know they are properly lined, locked or secured and that switch points fit. Lock must be tested by pulling chain to know that it is secured.
Employes must stand not less than twenty feet from the switch stand and, when practicable, on the opposite side of the track while a train is closely approaching or passing.
When a train or engine is on a siding or other track to be met or passed by a train, the employe who is to attend the switch must not go nearer the switch than the fouling point until the expected train has been met or has passed.
Employes alighting from a moving train to change position of a switch behind such train must, when practicable, get off from rear end of rear car, but when this cannot be done and safety permits, must get off train from side opposite switch stand.
Except when changed t0 permit movement, derails must be set in derailing position, and where equipped with locks they must be locked.
Switches must be set for the dead rails over track scales when the scales are not in use.
If a switch lock is missing or found defective, another lock must be supplied if practicable, and a report made to train dispatcher.
If a switch is damaged or run through, report must be made to proper authority, and when practicable section men notified. Switch must be spiked unless section men take charge. If it cannot be made safe, protection must be provided.
104 (B). Spring switches are identified by special targets, lights, or both, and permit trailing point movements through the switch without operating the switch by hand. Rule 513 and the third paragraph of Rule 514 (A) apply only when the switch is operated by hand.
A train or engine, stopping on a spring switch while trailing through and actuating the switch points, must not make a reverse movement or take slack until the switch has been operated by hand and it is known that switch points are in proper position for safe movement.
A spring switch must not be operated by hand when wheels are standing on any part of the switch points, or before the points have completed their full movement after being trailed through.
When a train or engine moving in either direction is stopped by a signal governing movement over a spring switch, the switch must be tested by opening and closing by hand, and switch examined to make certain it is properly lined, locked or secured and that points fit before movement is made.
When a train or engine is stopped by a signal governing a trailing point movement through a spring switch, and no conflicting train movement is evident, the switch must be operated by hand for the route. If switch is equipped with a facing point lock, it must not be lined and locked in normal position until after movement has been completed. If switch is not equipped with a facing point lock, it must be lined and locked in normal position after the leading wheels have passed the fouling point.
104 (C). In automatic block signal territory, at locations where there is no signal governing trailing point movements through a spring switch from a siding or other track to the main track, switch must be operated by hand and Rule 513 and the third paragraph of Rule 514 (A) must be complied with. Switch may be restored to normal position after leading wheels have passed the fouling point. Protection as prescribed by Rule 99 must be provided against following movements on the main track.
Under conditions covered by the exceptions in Rule 513, the spring switch may be trailed through without hand operating the switch.
D-104. When moving against the current of traffic on double or three or more tracks, trains and engines must stop and examine facing points of spring switches unless such switches are protected by signals.
105. Trains and engines using a siding or any track other than a main track must move at restricted speed.
Sidings of an assigned direction must not be used in a reverse direction unless authorized by the superintendent or in an emergency under flag protection.
105 (A). When main track is out of service and trains must be run through an adjacent track, switches must be lined, locked and spiked for that track, and train dispatcher notified. Until train order covering the condition is issued to all trains affected, flag protection must be provided. Flagman must remain until released by the train dispatcher.
106. The conductor and engineer and anyone acting as pilot are equally responsible for the safety of the train and the observance of the rules, and under conditions not provided for by the rules, must take every precaution for protection.
107. Trains or engines must run at restricted speed in passing a train receiving or discharging traffic at a station, except where proper safeguards are provided, or the movement is otherwise protected.
Trains or engines must not pass between train and platform at which traffic is being received or discharged unless the movement is properly protected and proceed signal is received. Movement must then be made at restricted speed.
108. In case of doubt or uncertainty, the safe course must be taken.
109. The locations of bulletin boards or bulletin books are designated in the time-table.
Bulletins will be numbered consecutively beginning with No. 1 January first of each year. They will be issued and cancelled by the superintendent. The time and date posted will be endorsed on the face of each bulletin.
Employes in train, engine and yard service must read bulletins and notices before starting each trip or day’s work, and will be held accountable for their observance.
The number of the last bulletin will be recorded by conductors, engineers and foremen of yard engines in the place provided as acknowledgment of all bulletins posted prior to commencing each day’s work.
Where crews operate over more than one division and bulletins of each division are posted at the starting point of run, receipt for the last bulletin of each division will be made by showing initials of each division and number of the bulletin.
D-151. On double track, trains must keep to the right, unless otherwise provided.
Where three or more main tracks are in service they shall be designated by numbers and their use indicated by special instructions.
D-152. When a train crosses over to, or obstructs another main track, unless otherwise provided, it must first be protected as prescribed by Rule 99 in both directions on that track.
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